2017/2018 JAMB CBT Biology Syllabus Question And Answers from JAMB CBT

2017/2018 JAMB CBT Biology Syllabus Question And Answers from JAMB CBT

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Biology is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the interdependence and unity of life;
2. account for continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance and evolution;
3. apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting the individual, society, the environment, community health and the economy.
1. Living organisms:
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. Amoeba , cheek cell
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues
iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba , Euglena and Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus .
Candidates should be able to:
I differentiate between the characteristics of living and non-living things;
ii. identify the cell structures;
iii. analyse the functions of the components of plants and animal cells;
iv. compare and contrast the structure of plant and animal cells;
v. trace the levels of organization among organisms in their logical sequence in relation to the five kingdom classification of living organisms.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse external features and characteristics of the listed organisms:
ii. apply the knowledge from (i) above to demonstrate increase in structural complexity;
iii. trace the stages in the life histories of the listed organisms;
d. Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra )
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.
Bryachymenium and Merchantia .
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris .
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra )
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes, ticks, mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
3. Structural/behavioural adaptations of vertebrates (bony fish, toad, lizard, bird, small mammal) to the environment.
iv. apply the knowledge of the life histories to demonstrate gradual transition from life in water to life on land;
v. trace the evolution of the listed plants.
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the evolution of the invertebrate animals;
ii. determine the economic importance of the insects studied;
iii. asses their values to the environment;
i. trace the evolution of multi-cellular animals;
ii. determine their economic importance.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe how the various structures and behaviour adapt these organisms to their environment;
1. Internal structure of a flowering plant
i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a mammal
2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic
Types of Nutrition
b. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the transverse sections of these organs;
ii. relate the structure of these organs to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the arrangement of the mammalian internal organs;
ii. describe the appearance and position of the digestive, reproductive and excretory organs.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes of nutrition;
ii. provide examples from both flowering and non- flowering plants;
iii. compare autotropic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.
Candidates should be able to: differentiate the following examples:
– holozoic (sheep and man)
– Parasitic ( roundworm , tapeworm and
Loranthus )
– saprophytic ( Rhizopus and mushroom )
– carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort)
– determine their nutritional value.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse the light and dark reactions, materials and conditions necessary for photosynthesis;
ii. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV) oxide and chlorophyll in photosynthesis;
iii. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as an evidence of photosynthesis.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify macro-and micro-elements required by plants;
ii. determine the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.
c. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)
iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.
3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and
hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)
Candidates should be able to:
i. indicate the sources of the various classes of food;
ii. relate the importance of each class;
iii. determine the importance of a balanced diet.
Candidates should be able to detect the presence of the listed food items from the result of a given experiment.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth;
ii. differentiate the types of mammalian tooth and relate their structures to their functions.
iii. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep, and dog.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the various components of the alimentary canal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes;
ii. associate enzymes with digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats;
iii. determine the end products of these classes of food.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the relationship between increase in size and complexity and the need for the development of a transport system.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the sources of materials and the forms in which they are transported.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the general circulatory system;
ii. compare specific functions of the hepatic portal vein, the pulmonary vein and artery, aorta, the renal artery and vein
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the organs of the plant vascular system;
ii. compare the specific functions of the phloem and xylem
d. Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.
4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify media of transportation (e.g. cytoplasm, cell sap, body fluid, blood and lymph);
ii. determine the composition of blood and lymph;
iii. describe diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis and turgidity as mechanism of transportation in organisms;
iv. compare the various mechanisms of open circulatory systems, transpiration pull, root pressure and active transport as mechanism of transportation in plants.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the significance of respiration;
ii. describe the process of glycolysis;
iii. compare the similarities of the process in plants and animals;
iv. deduce from an experimental set up, gaseous exchange and products, exchange and production of heat energy during respiration.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the following respiratory organs and surfaces with organisms in which they occur; body surface, gill, trachea, lungs, stomata and lenticels;
ii. relate the characteristics of the respiratory surfaces listed above to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the mechanism for the opening and closing of the stomata;
ii. determine respiratory movements in these animals.
Candidates should be able to:
iii. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation of energy for the activities of the living organisms;
iv. deduce the effect of insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles.
Candidates should be able to:
i. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstrate the process of fermentation;
ii. asses the economic importance of yeasts;
5.Excretion
a. Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flamecell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants
6. Support and movement
a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in animals
c. Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals
Candidates should be able to:
i. Interpret the meaning and significance of excretion;
ii. identify the characteristics of each structure.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretory and osmo-regulatory functions.
. identify the functions and excretory products of the lungs and the skin.
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the economic importance of the excretory products of plants, carbon (IV) oxide, tannins,
resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the need for support and movement in organisms;
ii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres);
iii. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem, and leaf.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light, water, gravity and touch;
ii. identify the regions of growth in roots and shoots and the roles of auxins in tropism.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the location of chitin, cartilage and bone to their supporting function;
ii. relate the structure and the general layout of the mammalian skeleton to their supportive, locomotive and respiratory function;
iii. differentiate types of joints using appropriate examples.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the protective, supportive, locomotive and respiratory functions of the skeleton to the wellbeing of the animal;
7. Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gamates)
8. Growth
a. meaning fo grwoth
b. Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction;
ii. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop production and multiplication;
iii. apply grafting, budding and layering in agricultural practices.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate parts of flower to their functions and reproductive process;
ii. deduce the advantages of cross pollination;
iii. deduce the different types of placentation that develop into simple, aggregate, multiple and succulent fruits.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between male and female reproductive organs;
ii. relate their structure and function to the production of offspring.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the fusion of gametes as a process of fertilization;
ii. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutrition and indiscriminate use of drugs on the developmental stages of the embryo up to birth.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary for germination on plants growth;
ii. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the central nervous system in the coordination of body functions in organisms;
ii. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerk; etc.;
iii. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle and swimming;
b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland
– pancreas
– gonads
ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)
d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate the listed sense organs with their functions;
ii. apply the knowledge of the structure and functions of these sense organs in detecting an correcting their defects.
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals;
ii. relate the hormone produced by each of these glands to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g. auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening and leaf abscission.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the function of hormones to regulating the levels of materials inside the body.
1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms
i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity, turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil) conditions on the distribution of organisms.
ii. use appropriate equipment (e.g. sechi disc, thermometer, rain gauge etc) to measure abiotic factors.

2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals
(a) Food chains, food webs and trophic levels
(b) Energy flow in the ecosystem.
(c) Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.
4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)
a . Tropical rainforest
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe how the activities of plants/animals (particularly human) affect the distribution of organisms.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine appropriate examples of symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, comensalism, mutualism, amensalism, competition, predation and cooperation among organisms;
ii. associate the distribution of organisms with food chains and food webs in particular habitats.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the ecological pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the cycle and its significance including the balance of atmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide.
Candidates should be able to:
i. assess the effects of water cycle on other nurtrient cycles.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the cycling of nitrogen.
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate plants and animals with each of these habitats.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which an organisms lives.
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate biomes to regions
ii. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed local biomes in determining the characteristics of different regions of Nigeria.
b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population density and overcrowding.
(b) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.
c. Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
6. SOIL
a) (i) characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus content
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
b) Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the reasons for rapid changes in human population and the consequences of overcrowding;
ii. compute/calculate density as the number of organisms per unit area;
iii. apply modern methods to control human population;
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of population.
i. determine the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. drought or scarcity of water which leads to food shortage and lack of space which causes increase in disease rates;
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the sequence in succession to the climax stage of stability in plant population.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify physical properties of different soil types based on simple measurement of particle size, porosity or water retention ability;
ii. determine the amounts of air, water, humus and capillarity in different soil types experimentally.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate soil characteristics, types and components to the healthy growth of plant.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter, compaction, leaching, erosion of the top soil and repeated cropping with one variety.
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility
7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc to enhance soil conservation.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify ecological conditions that favour the spread of common endemic and potentially epidemic disease e.g. malaria, meningitis, drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, typhoid fever and cholera etc.;
ii. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease with its spread and control;
Candidates should be able to:
i. use the knowledge 

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