Civic Education (OBJ & ESSAY) Neco 2017 Free Expo Answers

Civic Education (OBJ & ESSAY) Neco 2017 Free Expo Answers
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Thursday 13th July 2017
OBJ & Essay – Civic Education – 10am – 1pm
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OBJ ANSWERS

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CIVIC EDUCATION ANSWERS

1a. causes of HIV/AIDS
(I) Through semen: Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
(ii) infected needles: Another common way of getting it is by sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
(iii) infected mother: The virus can also be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
(iv) If tissues or organs from an infected person are transplanted, the recipient may acquire HIV.
1b. Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
(i) Fever.
(ii) Sore throat.
(iii) Headache.
(iv) Muscle aches and joint pain.
(v) Swollen glands (swollen lymph nodes).
(vi) Skin rash
(vii) Fatigue

2a human trafficking: is the action or practice of illegally transporting people from one country or area to another, typically for the purposes of forced labour or commercial sexual exploitation.
2b. (i) Poverty: Poverty and lack of educational and economic opportunities in one’s hometown may lead women to voluntarily migrate and then be involuntarily trafficked into sex work.

(ii) Globalization: As globalization opened up national borders to greater exchange of goods and capital, labor migration also increased. Less wealthy countries have fewer options for livable wages. Globalization and the rise of Internet technology has also facilitated sex trafficking. Online classified sites and social networks have been under intense scrutiny for being used some traffickers in facilitating sex trafficking and sex work in general. Traffickers use explicit sites and underground sites to market, recruit, sell, and exploit females.

(iii) Domestic Violence: Domestic violence is one of the most widespread violations of women’s rights in the world. Due to limited legal mechanisms and support for abused women in many communities, women often see few opportunities to end the abuse. Research suggests that victims of domestic violence may also be at risk of becoming victims of trafficking when they seek work abroad in order to leave the abusive situation.

(iv) Maltreatment: Some children who are being maltreated and not taken care of ted to run away from the homes in which this happens. Most of them are deceived and end up in the hands of traffickers.

(v) Social and Cultural Practices: Many societies and cultures devalue, abuse and exploit women and girls, creating perilous living conditions for these women. With little opportunities of upward mobility and with little value placed on women and girls, they are more vulnerable to human trafficking.

(vi) Ignorance/Illiteracy: It is said that knowledge is power. Those who are not aware of the ills and effects of human trafficking are more susceptible to fall prey to the traffickers than the others. Information on trafficking empowers people to be on guide and take measures to avoid being a victim.

4a)
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation .

4b)
i) Citizenship by Birth ( jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person’s parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well

ii)Citizenship by Registration
A person can be a citizen of a country through registration. This mostly occurs to women who marry foreign nationals. For instance, a Gambian woman married to a Nigerian may register as a citizen of Nigeria but she must satisfy certain conditions such as residing in Nigeria and should take the oath of allegiance to Nigeria and renounce her Gambian citizenship.

iii) Citizenship by Naturalization
This is another way through which an individual can acquire citizenship in a country. Through this method, the individual must satisfy certain basic conditions such as in the case of Nigeria, the individual must have lived in Nigeria for not less than 15 years, he must have a job, he must be an honourable person, that is, not a criminal and must be recommended by a very important person in the country.

iv)Citizenship by Descent
This is a method of acquiring citizenship of another country as a result of the fact that his grandparents are citizens of the country.

(5a)
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation .
(5b)
i) Citizenship by Birth ( jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person’s parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well

ii)Citizenship by Registration
A person can be a citizen of a country through registration. This mostly occurs to women who marry foreign nationals. For instance, a Gambian woman married to a Nigerian may register as a citizen of Nigeria but she must satisfy certain conditions such as residing in Nigeria and should take the oath of allegiance to Nigeria and renounce her Gambian citizenship.

iii) Citizenship by Naturalization
This is another way through which an individual can acquire citizenship in a country. Through this method, the individual must satisfy certain basic conditions such as in the case of Nigeria, the individual must have lived in Nigeria for not less than 15 years, he must have a job, he must be an honourable person, that is, not a criminal and must be recommended by a very important person in the country.

iv)Citizenship by Descent
This is a method of acquiring citizenship of another country as a result of the fact that his grandparents are citizens of the country.

7a)
Civil society refers to any non-governmental entity formed by a group of people with similar interests who come together to work on a common goal

7b)
i)Civil society makes state at all level to be accountable, responsive and to be more effective. They help to limit and control the power of the state

ii)It promotes political participation through the process of educating people about the about their rights and obligations as democratic citizen and also encourage them to participate in election.

iii)Building community; engagement and participation in voluntary associations also has the potential to strengthen bonds among citizens.

iv)Socialization; civil society contributes to the formation and practice of democratic attitudes among citizens. Thus people learn to develop tolerance, mutual trust and the ability to relate with people.

v)It can also help to play an important role in meditating and helping to resolve conflict.

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